Pancreatic trypsin increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 accumulation and activation during acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. Reactive oxygen species ROS Another factor that induces intestinal injury after reperfusion is the generation of free radicals from oxygen molecules, derived from the electron transport chains of the mitocondria, xanthine-oxidase XO metabolism, endothelial cells, prostaglandins and activated neutrophils 9. Comparative study of intramucosal pH in histologic damage from small bowel ischemia-reperfusion injury. NF-kB is maintained in a latent form in the cytoplasm and, under certain conditions translocates to the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription References 1. The intestinal fatty acid bonding proteins I-FABP are small intracellular proteins which exist in the mucosa of the intestinal epithelial of many mammals and can be detected in the plasma and urine after cellular injury This increase in permeability results in translocation of enteric bacterial products. Intestinal ischemia Intestinal ischemia is generally the result of arterial occlusion by thrombi or embolisms and, more frequently, by non occlusive processes, like in situations of low mesenteric flow which occurs in cardiac insufficiency, sepsis, the administration of alpha-adrenergic agents or digitalics 4,5. Noda et al. Intestinal ischemia performs a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of several clinical-surgical conditions and reperfusion results in more severe tissue injury than with ischemia alone.
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IL pretreatment reduces cell death after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.
Malondialdehid is one of the final products of lipidic peroxidation and several methods have been proposed for its determination. Occlusion and reperfusion of the splanchnic arteries precipitate circulatory shock, which, principally through an increase in vascular permeability, causes the activation and adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils PMNsthe release of proinflammatory substances and the formation of both nitrogen-derived and oxygen-derived free radicals OFR 14, Aldemir et al.
The release of mitocondria cytochrome for cytosol occurs to activate caspase-9, which, in turn, increases apoptosis in the mucosa
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Real-time energy metabolism of intestine during arterial versus venous occlusion in the rat. Hypothermia throughout intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury attenuates lung neutrophil infiltration.
Oxygen-derived free radicals in postischemic tissue injury. N-Acetyl cysteine protects against injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.
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Effects of NF-kappa B inhibition on mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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Pathophysiology of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion a review
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Apoptosis did not occur in the duodenum, as there was no reduction in the blood flow after SMA occlusion.
Time-dependent platelet-vessel wall interactions induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. A study realized by Teramoto et al. Role of xanthine oxidase and granulocytes in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The attached granulocytes cause further injury to the endothelial cell through the release of superoxide and several proteases Besides lipidic peroxidation, the measurement of proteic and DNA damage and of antioxidants has been performed to quantify ROS in vivo
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Consequently there is a loss of selectivity in the ionic exchange and the release of the contents of the organelles, like the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosomes and the formation of cytotoxic products culminating in cell death 11, Oxygen-derived free radicals in postischemic tissue injury.
Keywords: ischemia, reperfusion, mesenteric vascular occlusion, reperfusion injury. McCord JM. Nitric oxide presents beneficial vasodilatory effects in the microvascular system, through the relaxation of the smooth vascular muscle cells, but, paradoxically, could be involved in the production of cytotoxic radicals Indirect detection of NO can be performed by chemiluminescence, oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin conversion or the quantification of stable NO metabolites, like nitric and nitrate Brain Res.
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|Conclusions Intestinal ischemia performs a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of several clinical-surgical conditions and reperfusion results in more severe tissue injury than with ischemia alone.
Heart energy metabolism after intestinal ischaemia and reperfusion. Rio de Janeiro: Interlivros; Arterial ischemia initiates alterations in tissues by blocking the oxygen supply, thus impeding aerobic energetic metabolism. Pentoxifylline preserves small-intestine microvascular blood flow during bacteremia.